任务型教学在城乡结合部初中英语教学中的现状调查

任务型教学在城乡结合部初中英语教学中的现状调查

来源:www.51fabiao.org作者:lgg发布时间:2018-08-03 18:12
本文是一篇英语硕士论文,英语专业学生主要学习英语语言、文学,英美等英语国家历史、政治、经济、外交、社会文化等方面基本理论和基本知识,受到英语听、说、读、写、译等方面的良好
本文是一篇英语硕士论文,英语专业学生主要学习英语语言、文学,英美等英语国家历史、政治、经济、外交、社会文化等方面基本理论和基本知识,受到英语听、说、读、写、译等方面的良好的技巧训练,掌握一定的科研方法,具有从事翻译、研究、教学、管理工作的业务水平及较好的素质与能力。(以上内容来自百度百科)今天为大家推荐一篇英语硕士论文,供大家参考。
 
Chapter OneIntroduction
 
Nowadays the Task-based Language Teaching, also known as TBLT, has becomea basic concept for teachers. It is well known that TBLT is quite beneficial forstudents in many ways. However, it also holds higher demands for teachers thantraditional teaching theory do, as it requires teachers to rack their brains to designlearning tasks that meet the needs of students at all levels. In rural-urban fringe, it iseven more difficult for teachers to apply TBLT because the students in the same classusually range from straight-A students to students with learning disabilities. It seemsimpossible for teachers to design such tasks that every student can accomplish andlearn things in the process. The tasks would be either too easy or too difficult forstudents. Therefore, the research aims at studying the present situation of applyingTBLT in rural-urban fringe.
 
1.1 Research Background
In 2001, the Ministry of Education formulated the English Curriculum Standardfor Full Time Compulsory Ordinary High Schools (hereinafter referred to as the NewEnglish Curriculum Standards), which has been implemented in the whole countrysince September. The New English Curriculum Standards explicitly puts forward the“Task-based Language Teaching”, which enables students to achieve the goal of thetask and achieve success through perception, experience, practice, participation andcooperation under the guidance of teachers.Task-based Language Teaching was a teaching theory which originated fromabroad in the 80s and was introduced into China in the 90s. In TBLT classes,according to specific teaching aims and students’ learning abilities, teachers designtasks that are in accordance with students’ real life, spread the teaching important anddifficult points into learning tasks which enable students to learn the language points step by step from easy ones to difficult ones. TBLT has characters of strongoperability, high degree of students’ engagement, close to real-life, being interesting,the most importantly, enabling students to learn by doing.Both domestic and foreign language teaching experts have high evaluation ofTBLT. Jeremy Harmer (2000) believes that successful language learning shouldfollow the principles of activating students’ learning motivation before they learn.Therefore, TBLT conforms to the law of students’ language learning, it is an effectiveteaching theory. This is a learning process from the whole to the part which reflectsthe teaching idea of student-centered learning (Cheng Kela, 2006). The purpose ofTBLT is to make the classroom more social and to make the language learning moreauthentic. The focus of the teaching theory is on the people who attach importance tothe learning process and the language ( Xia Jimei, 1998). Therefore, it meets therequirements of the curriculum reform in China and promotes the development ofstudents' comprehensive quality. The characteristic of TBLT classes is that studentsapply their language through various activities and tasks. This maximizes the learner'sintrinsic motivation. On the basis of experiencing success and recognizing their ownshortcomings, students gain the awareness of autonomous learning, construct newknowledge systems independently, master communicative strategies in interaction,and creatively study and apply language (Xi Yafu, 2003). Therefore, TBLT canprovide a large amount of language input and real application opportunities forstudents, which make up the lack of language learning environment for Chinesestudents to a certain extent, the mutual aid and cooperation existing in the tasks andactivities also help to cultivate students' cooperative consciousness and innovationability, and these are the two kinds of learning ability students need to be improved.
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1.2Research Purpose
Simply put, the purposes of the research are to find out the answers of thefollowing questions: 1) What are teachers’ attitude and understandings of TBLT inmiddle schools in rural-urban fringe? What about students? 2) What is the currentsituation of implementation of TBLT in classes in rural-urban fringe? 3) Whatproblems and difficulties have the teachers encountered in applying TBLT in middleschools in rural-urban fringe? 4) What are the factors for problems existing? 5) Whatcountermeasures can be taken to solve these problems? By conducting the research,the author hopes to find out the factors for problems existing in the application ofTBLT in middle schools in rural-urban fringe, and then to propose possiblecountermeasures.
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Chapter TwoLiterature Review
 
TBLT has been recognized by more and more people day by day. This chaptermainly elaborates the definition of tasks and explores the theoretical framework ofTBLT. In the last part of this chapter, the researches on TBLT at home and abroad areboth elaborated in order to take a more comprehensive look.
 
2.1 The Definition of Tasks
As for the word “task”, the academic community has a lot of differentopinions.“Task” first refers to “the various kinds of things people do in non-educationenvironment or in daily life”. For example, “paint the fence, dress child, fill out forms,buy shoes, book air tickets, borrow books from the library, get the driver’s license,writing emails, weigh your patients, sort mails, book hotel rooms, write a check, findthe destination, help others such as crossing the street” (Long, 1985). In real life, atask may be part of another task, or it may be a follow-up or development of anothertask. Therefore, the task clusters or task chains has the characteristics of hierarchical,systematicness and continuity. The tasks in TBLT are quite similar to the tasks in reallife. Nunan divides tasks into real-world tasks and pedagogical tasks according totheir degree of similarity, “the former have analogy object in life or prototype, whilethe latter can only be operated in a certain educational environment” (Nunan, 2001).Nunan, from the point view of communication, regards tasks as classroom teachingactivities through which learners use the target language to understand, operate,produce and communicate with each other. In these activities, learners’ attention ismainly concentrate on using the grammatical knowledge to express meaningfulsentences instead of drilling the form of language. At the same time, he believes thattasks should have integrity which means there are beginning, process and results.
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2.2 The Definition of Task-based Language Teaching
Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT) refers to the teaching conducted by ateacher through guiding the language learners to complete tasks in class. Thelanguage teaching theory lays emphasis on “learning by doing”.Simply speaking, TBLT means learning for doing, learning by doing. It takes thestudents as the main body of teaching, in the teaching process, teachers design avariety of teaching tasks from the point of students’ learning. In the process ofcompleting various tasks, students gradually develop the ability to use language. Thegoal of classroom teaching should be real and task-oriented so as to cultivate students'ability to use the language. That is to say, with specific tasks as the carrier, tocomplete the task as the driving force, learners integrate knowledge and skills, use thelanguage to do things through listening, speaking, reading, writing and other activities,in the process of doing things, they improve and use the language they learned.The idea is that language acquisition is mostly the result of using language inactivities rather than merely training language skills and learning language knowledge.Therefore, teachers should design a specific operational task, and then learnerscomplete the tasks through communication, expression, interpretation, negotiation,inquiry and so on. As a result, they achieve the purpose of learning and mastering thelanguage. TBLT is formed by absorbing advantages of many previous teachingtheories, so it is not exclusive of other teaching theories.
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Chapter Three...............23
3.1 Research Questions ........23
3.2 Participants .........24
3.3 Instruments.........24
3.4 Research Procedures ......27
3.5 Data Collection and Analysis.....28
Chapter four .....30
4.1 Findings in Questionnaires.........30
4.2 Findings in Classroom Observations......39
4.3 Findings in Interviews................44
4.4 Practical Suggestions......51
Chapter Five.....53
5.1 Summary of Major Findings ......53
5.2 Limitations of the Research........55
5.3 Implications for Further Research..........55
 
Chapter fourFindings and Discussions
 
In this chapter, results and discussions will be presented according to the resultsthe author collected and analyzed in the last chapter.
 
4.1 Findings in Questionnaires
In this chapter, the author intended to discuss the results of the questionnaires.Due to the limitation of space, only the descriptive data and standard deviation wouldbe showed in this chapter, the percentage of the options of each Item would be put inappendices 3.From table 4.1.1.1, we can see that most teachers and students had a certainunderstanding of tasks. In responses to Item 12, we could see the mean score was 3.80.Five participants chose option 4 (agree), 2 participants chose option 5 (strongly agree),this indicated that most teachers believed that tasks were similar to real-life activities.That is to say, most teachers believed that tasks must be authentic, which could besupported from responses to Item 32 and 39. From these two figures, it could be seenthat most teachers believed that tasks should be related to students’ study and life. Inresponses to Item 41 and 44, whose mean score was 4.3 and 2.7, we could come to theconclusion that although teachers tended to agree on the importance of tasks’authentic, they also believed it was more important to improve students’ languagecompetence. The results in Item 31 suggested that a few teachers even believedsometimes we could abandon the enjoyment of tasks comparing to improvingstudents’ language competence. At the same time, most teachers also believed thattasks were form-based exercises or activities.
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Conclusion
 
In the last four chapters, the author conducted an investigation and madeobservations on TBLT in junior middle schools of rural-urban fringe while providinga brief literature review at home and abroad. After analyzing and discussing theresults from the questionnaires, classroom observations and interviews, the authortried to draw a conclusion and put forward some suggestions.From above results, the major findings are summarized as follows:
1. Some teachers have vague ideas of the definition and designing principles ofTBLT. For example, some of them rely on the textbooks too much without takingstudents’ specific situation into account, and therefore, they fail to design tasks thatare related to students’ real-life, some fail to give students clear instructions orprovide them with relevant vocabulary in the pre-task stage, some fail to regulate theclassroom effectively in the while-task stage, and some just skip the step wherestudents make a brief report in the post-task stage because it’s too much trouble orsome other factors, and thus fail to improve students’ comprehensive languagecompetence.
2. The factors of students themselves in rural-urban fringe have great obstaclesto the implementation of TBLT. First, nearly 30% students have zero English learningexperiences and poor learning ability, they are unable to complete the tasks designedaccording to present textbooks. Secondly, due to the particularity of rural-urban fringe,it is very difficult to find out the best binding point between the teaching content andlife experience because of students’ different learning background, interests andlanguage proficiency. So teachers often feel it is quite hard to determine the content and form of a task, not to mention to design tasks that meet every student’s learningneeds. According to the classroom observations and interviews, the tasks are usuallyeither too easy for students to stimulate their interests, or too difficult to complete thetasks. Thirdly, some students are not willing to cooperate in class because of the lackof motivation to study due to their complicated family background. According to theinterview, some of the students’ parents don’t have time for them because they arebusy working part-time jobs as they are poor, some of the students’ parents getremarried multiple times so the students usually live with their step-mother/father,some even have more than one half-blooded brothers or sisters, some of the studentsgrow up in a sing-parent family, their parents are too busy for their work or newfamily to care about them, some of their parents are criminals like thieves, robbers,some even do drugs. All these things bother these students, so they have no desire tostudy.
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参考文献(略)