基于自建语料库的英语专业学生写作中学术词汇的使用研究

基于自建语料库的英语专业学生写作中学术词汇的使用研究

来源:www.51fabiao.org作者:lgg发布时间:2018-07-26 19:49
本文是一篇英语硕士论文,英语包含约49万词,外加技术名词约30万个,是词汇最多的语言,也是欧盟以及许多国际组织以及英联邦国家的官方语言,拥有世界第三位的母语使用者人数。
本文是一篇英语硕士论文,英语包含约49万词,外加技术名词约30万个,是词汇最多的语言,也是欧盟以及许多国际组织以及英联邦国家的官方语言,拥有世界第三位的母语使用者人数,仅次于汉语和西班牙语母语使用者人数。(以上内容来自百度百科)今天为大家推荐一篇英语硕士论文,供大家参考。
 
Chapter 1 Introduction
 
1.1 Research Background
Vocabulary acquisition has long been regarded as a key component of language learning. Thebreadth and depth of vocabulary mastery directly determines whether the language learnerscan effectively understand and output various registers of language use. For example,academic report is usually a weak point for Chinese English learners. According to EnglishSyllabus for College English Majors, issued by Foreign Language Teaching and LearningCommittee in 2000, “the teaching objectives include providing students with both languageproficiency and humanities knowledge, so that they are qualified to do translation/ teaching/management/ researching-related work in the areas of diplomacy, education, business, culture,technology and military” (par.2). Thus the high level of English proficiency is a must.Researchers hold assumptions that good writing entails effective vocabulary use in writing. Itis characterized by “a selection of low-frequency words (appropriate to the topic and style)rather than general, everyday vocabulary, which is another aspect of range of expression [e.g.a variety of different words rather than repetition](Read 106)”. Academic vocabulary, as oneof the major components of low-frequency words, is usually the most challenging part ofvocabulary acquisition, especially for learners in EAP and ESP context.Academic vocabulary is often needed when researchers express the academic viewpoint,elaborate the research activity and explain the research results (Farrell 57-58). The importantrole of academic vocabulary in academic texts makes it essential for language learners andusers to pay more attention to the academic words.
........
 
1.2 Research Content and Significance
This paper intends to study the development of academic words of Chinese English learnerson the basis of self-built diachronic corpus DWELC—Diachronic Written English LearnerCorpus (郑玉荣 51-58). The corpus, containing 6 sub-corpora, consists of diachronic writtenmaterials of English majors across 6 semesters. The study aims to explore the use of academic words in Chinese English learners’ writing. To be specific, this study focuses on the amountand the type of academic words employed in their timed argumentative compositions. It ishoped that this paper can help to depict the trajectory of the acquisition of academicvocabulary. On the basis of the findings, this paper also gives some suggestions andimplications, hoping to shed some light on the vocabulary teaching and learning of academicwords as well as other low frequency words.
.......
 
Chapter 2 Literature Review
 
This part reviews the previous studies from the following perspectives. First, academic wordsare defined. Second, the classification of vocabulary is clarified and different word listsinvolving academic words are presented. As the key rationale in this research, Coxhead’sacademic word list (AWL) is introduced in detail. Last, relative studies about AWL bothabroad and at home are reviewed.
 
2.1 Defining Academic Words
Generally speaking, academic words are defined as “formal, context-independent words witha high frequency and/or wide range of occurrence across scientific disciplines, not usuallyfound in basic general English courses” (Farrell 11). These words are often used in clarifyingacademic viewpoints when writing academic articles. The acquisition of academicvocabulary is an important measure of learners’ academic competence.Academic vocabulary knowledge is recognized as an indispensable component of academicreading and writing abilities. Other names, such as “sub-technical vocabulary” and“semi-technical vocabulary” are also used to refer to academic vocabulary (Farrell 13).Although these terms may overlap one another, they have different uses in different domains.For example, in the field of science and technology, researchers usually tend to use the term“sub-technical vocabulary” or “semi-technical vocabulary”. However, in social scienceresearch articles, academic vocabulary is more common.According to Nation’s definition, academic words have four features. First, academic wordsare common in academic texts in various fields. Second, academic words occupy aconsiderable number of words in academic articles. Third, they are not generally consideredas “technical terms” or “professional terms”. Fourth, they are a kind of words, which can beused in English teaching (Nation 191-98).
........
 
2.2 Classification of Word Lists Involving Academic Words
Based on different classification standards, vocabulary can be divided into differentcategories, and various word lists are established to meet different needs of vocabularylearning.According to the frequency and distribution of vocabulary, vocabulary can be divided intofour categories: (1) 2,000 high frequency vocabularies are widely and frequently used invarious genres as the basic vocabulary. These words contain 80% words of academic articlesand newspapers, and 90% words of daily conversations and fictions. (2) Academic words,such as propose, significant, analyze and so on, are often used in academic articles. Thesewords contain 8% to 10% words of academic articles. (3) Technical vocabulary refers to akind of words that are closely related to a particular subject. (4) Low frequency vocabularyhas few occurrences in the texts (Ming-tzu and Nation 294).According to the scope of vocabulary, vocabulary can be divided into three categories: (1)words shared in all fields; (2) words shared by several subjects; (3) professional words inone specialized field (Dresher 201-04).
........
 
Chapter 3 Research Design ............... 20
3.1 Research Questions ..... 20
3.2 The Self-built Corpus DWELC........... 20
3.3 The Software “Range” ............ 23
3.4 Data Collection Procedures..... 27
Chapter 4 Results and Discussions ............... 32
4.1 The Overall Coverage of AWL in DWELC .... 32
4.2 Longitudinal Tendency of AWL in 6 Semesters.......... 34
4.3 Top 50 Frequent Word Families of AWL in DWELC ............. 38
4.4 Further Study on Specific Word Families ....... 45
4.5 Pedagogical Implications ........ 52
Chapter 5 Conclusion............. 54
5.1 Major Findings ............ 54
5.2 Limitations of the Present Study ......... 55
 
Chapter 4 Results and Discussions
 
In this chapter, the research data extracted from the self-built corpus DWELC based on thesoftware Range is presented, and the research questions in Chapter 3 are reiterated andaddressed. Quantitative results from the data collected by means of Range, followed byqualitative content analysis are demonstrated. To show the research results, tables and figuresare used.
 
4.1 The Overall Coverage of AWL in DWELC
An analysis of research data gathered from the calculation of DWELC by software Range ispresented in this part. Detailed statistics of tokens, types and families of DWELC is shown. Inorder to explore the coverage of AWL in DWELC, the corpus is input as an entire text into thesoftware Range, and only Basewrd3 of Range is chosen. Therefore we can get the statistics ofword list “three” from Range, which indicates the data of AWL in DWELC. In Table 4.1 thegeneral description of AWL in DWELC is presented.In Table 4.1,the word list “total” refers to the entire corpus capacity of DWELC. The numberof tokens, types and families of DWELC is shown. There are 114,549 tokens in DWELC,which is often regarded as the capacity of the corpus. Besides, the number of types and wordfamilies of DWELC is 5,498 and 1,701.As is mentioned in Chapter 3, the word list “three” is Coxhead’s AWL. So from the word list“three” in Table 4.1, the information of AWL in DWELC is presented. As is shown, the tokennumber of AWL (word list “three”) in DWELC is 4,502, and the number of type and family is627 and 336 respectively. The “percentage” in the table refers to the percentage that the totalnumber of AWL accounts for the total number of DWELC. Across Range, the percentage iscalculated automatically. The tokens usually refer to the total number of a text. We can seefrom Table 4.1 that the number of AWL accounts for 3.93% of the total number of DWELC,which means that the overall coverage rate of AWL in DWELC is 3.93%.
.........
 
Conclusion
 
Academic vocabulary is one of the most important components of vocabulary learning. Thebreadth and depth of vocabulary mastery directly determines whether the language users caneffectively understand and write various forms of language input. So far both at home andabroad there have been very few studies focusing on the longitudinal development oflearners’ academic words. To fill in this gap, this paper studies the longitudinal developmentof academic words in students’ writing based on the self-built corpus DWELC. Besides,in-depth studies of academic word families of AWL are addressed in this paper. Based on theresearch questions, major findings are summarized as follows:Firstly, the overall coverage rate of AWL in DWELC is 3.93%, which is a normal percentagein non-academic texts of students’ daily writing. The type frequency rate is 11.40%, which isrelatively higher. 336 word families of AWL, which is more than half of the total number ofword families in AWL, occur in DWELC. This indicates that learners tend to use a variety ofacademic words in their writing.Secondly, the longitudinal development tendency of AWL in DWELC increases in a generallinear pattern in 6 semesters. This means that with the increase of semesters, students’language proficiency improves and they tend to use more low frequency words in theirwriting. However, there are fluctuations in the increasing tendency of AWL. From thesignificance test, the increase of AWL in Semester 1 and Semester 2 has no significance.Increase between Semester 2 to Semester 4 is minor and slow. After Semester 4 the statisticaldifference is significantly enhanced. The result implies that learners’ acquisition of AWL isunstable and dynamic.
..........
References (abbreviated)