二语动机自我系统视角下的中国大学生英语学习动机调查研究

二语动机自我系统视角下的中国大学生英语学习动机调查研究

来源:www.51fabiao.org作者:lgg发布时间:2017-04-05 18:54论文字数:38547字
论文编号:fbo201704021645156544论文地区:中国论文语言:English论文类型:硕士毕业论文
本文是英语硕士论文,研究结果对于高校英语教学与学习具有十分重要的借鉴意义。教师要帮助学习者明确目标,提升信心,以期提高他们的英语学习效率。
Chapter One Introduction
 
1.1 Background
Since the policy of the Entrance Examination System for high education wasrestored in 1978, English was officially incorporated into the nine-year compulsoryeducation, which means English education stepped into a new phase in the mainlandof China. After carrying out the CET 4 (College English Test Band 4) in 1987,English was unshakably important in high education stage in China. Therefore, as arequired subject in both nine-year compulsory education and high education, almostevery Chinese student knows something about English no matter what his/hereducation background is. In the new century, with an increasing communicationbetween China and the rest of the world and the constant deepening of economicglobalization, a good mastery of a foreign language can be quite competitive in thejob market for young people. Therefore, although recently a new policy whichdecreased the ratio of English in the college entrance examination has been published,the importance of English in China has not changed actually for its instrumentalityand significance.Even though English teaching and studying play an important role in Chinaeducation system from a macro perspective, the current status of English learning ofChinese students is not quite encouraging, however. Since English is a compulsorysubject no matter what stage students are in, great challenges are made for those whodon’t like English or not good at language learning. Students are forced to learn asubject which they don’t accept willingly. Therefore, when the ambient pressures(educational system, teachers, parents, etc.) are gone, they may give up Englishlearning immediately. It can also explain why those graduates who passed CET 6 incollege are not qualified enough to work with English.What’s more, what is important doesn’t mean what is able to do. In fact, wehave seen so many students who cannot handle language learning well since westarted to learn English. Even those whose general performance at school is quitegood may fail in English studying, which makes English “a lion in the way” whenthey pursue their dreams. As we know, in the high education stage, the certificates ofCET 4 and CET 6 are essential requirements which are required compulsorily by theMinistry of Education if you want to graduate from college successfully. And they arealso required by employers if you want to find a satisfying job after graduation. Onthe contrary, we also know lots of people who seems to be gifted in English learning.With special learning strategies or something else, they usually can half the work withdouble results. So what are these things lead to the differences between two kinds ofstudents?
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1.2 Purposes of the Research
As we said, while some students are excellent in second language or foreignlanguage learning, some may fail to keep up with their fellow students. In order tofind out the factors that lead to the phenomenon, psychologists, educationists, andlinguists have investigated numerous factors that may affect language learningachievement such as language aptitude, anxiety, age, gender. As one of the mainnonintellectual factors that influence the performance of language learners, motivationhas been focus of attention of scholars since the end of 1950s. In the perspective ofpsychology, researches are concerned about how learners’ attitudes towards thesecond language, second language community, and its culture influence theirperformance in the language. From a macro level, researchers paid attention to howthe social environment influences language learning. After this kind of research beingthe trend of motivation study for about thirty years, scholars began to realize that it isthe classroom that most learning behaviors occur rather than the social environment inmost of the second language learning contexts. Therefore, the influence of classroomvariables would exceed the influence of the society. Since then, the direction of L2motivation research has shifted to a more educational-friendly orientation, that is, tothe classroom environment (including teachers, peers, teaching materials, etc.) whichis vital to language learning. Since the beginning of the 21st century, L2 motivation research has been narrowing down to focus on the learners themselves. The L2Motivational Self System is such an construct that concerns about theinterrelationship between motivation and language learner themselves.
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Chapter Two Literature Review
 
There has been more than half a century since L2 motivation was taken intoconsideration by linguists, psychologists and educationalists in second languagelearning and teaching, and they explored many methods to dig out the mysteriousrelationship between motivation and SLA achievements. In this chapter, I will make asummary of previous motivational studies at home and abroad from four aspects, thatis, theoretical framework, research methods, instruments, and research contents. Andthen, previous studies have similar research purposes with the present study are alsopresented.
 
2.1 Theoretical Framework
Since the end of 1950s, second language motivation study has experiencedmainly four stages: the social psychological stage, the cognitive-situated stage, theprocess-oriented stage and the social dynamic stage. Scholars of different fields studymotivation from their own perspectives.In the first stage, Canadian social psychologists such as Robert Gardner, WallaceLambert and their associates began to concern about the unique social context ofCanada where confrontational coexistence of Anglophone and Francophonecommunities happens. They viewed language as the mediating factor that promotingor hindering the intercultural communication between two communities. Therefore,with or without motivation to learn language of the other community can be regardedas a symbol of their affiliation about the other community. Scholars adopted a socialpsychological approach to investigate the influences that language learners’ attitudestowards the specific language group plays on their language achievement (Gardner &Lambert, 1972; Gardner, 1985; Williams, 1994). At that time, important outcomes likesocial-educational model and integrative motivation were developed and had led thetrend of SLA motivation study for about thirty years.In the second period, language learning motivation study had made a great shiftthat it began to concern about the motivational influence of the main components ofthe classroom language learning situation such as the language teacher, the curriculum,and learner group (Crookes & Schmidt, 1991; Dornyei, 1994; William & Burden,1997). Scholars imported some important cognitive theories in the 1980s like theAttribution Theory and the Self-determination theory into the motivation study.Therefore, this stage was named as cognitive-situated stage.
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2.2 Research Methods
Generally speaking, there are various methods to study students’ languagelearning motivation such as observation, diary, interview, questionnaire, methods ofquantitative analysis and qualitative analysis, etc. Before 1990s, motivation study inSLA were mostly quantitative study by questionnaires because it was believed thatmotivation was a trait that people were born with, and it can be studied by staticmethods. Therefore, scholars usually use questionnaires to investigate participants’attitudes towards language learning or experiments to take an action and observe theconsequences of that action. Many scholars designed their own questionnaires orexperiments in order to apply to their investigation.With the development of motivation theory and increasing dissatisfaction withintegrativeness, many researchers began to realize the limitation of former studies andproposed that motivation is a dynamic factor and is always in development. Therefore,qualitative methods such as in-depth interview, participant observation, focus groups,and journal analysis are used together with quantitative study in motivation study.For example, Gao & Zhou (2008) made a follow-up survey on English learningand self-identity changes of about 1300 students in their first two college years. Bothquantitative and qualitative methods were adopted in order to administer theirbehaviors and attitudes in a more profound way. Students were asked to finish twelvelearning journals in two years, with a theme which was given by their Englishteachers each time. And after the collection, researchers analyzed the contents of thejournals. One-to-one interviews were made with students about their English learningmotivation and feelings about their new school life.
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Chapter Three Theoretical Framework......... 14
3.1 Definition of Motivation......... 14
3.2 Classifications of Motivation........... 14
3.2.1 Intrinsic Motivation VS Extrinsic Motivation............15
3.2.2 Integrative Motivation VS. Instrumental Motivation..........15
3.2.3 Short-ranged Motivation VS. Long-range Motivation........16
3.2.4 Surface Motivation VS. Deep Motivation.........16
3.3 Motivation Study in the Field of Psychology.....16
3.4 Motivation Study in the Field of SLA.......17
Chapter Four Research Design.............22
4.1 Research Questions........ 22
4.2 Participants............22
4.3 Instruments............25
4.4 Procedure......26
4.5 Data Analysis.........26
Chapter Five Results.......... 28
5.1 General Characteristics of Chinese College Students’ EFL Motivation......... 28
5.2 Motivation and Major.....29
5.3 Motivation and Grade.....31
5.4 Motivation and School Category......32
5.5 Motivation and Family Background..........34
 
Chapter Six Discussion
 
In chapter five, results of quantitative study were presented which gave us lots ofinformation about students’ SLA motivation and factors that may have affect on theirmotivation. As we have known the relationship between college students’ languagelearning motivation and majors, grades, and their family backgrounds, the underlyingreasons that result in the phenomenon should be further explored.In the qualitative study, several students were further interviewed by theresearcher to express their opinions about characteristics of college students’ EFLmotivation. As members of the sampling, they usually know something about theirown situation about language learning. During the interview, the only thing they needto do is to express their points about the questions, regardless of the correctness oftheir opinions. In this chapter, their viewpoints were organized and presented. Theirare altogether 15 students participated in the interview, and six of them are Englishmajor students. The interview outline and interviewees’ information (Id number,university, major, grade, gender and age) will be presented in Appendix B and C.
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Conclusion
 
In the above six chapters, we studied both the characteristics of 642 Chinesecollege students’ English learning motivation, and achieved several results: Firstly,Chinese college students have relatively high motivation in English learning; secondly,English major students have higher motivation in English learning than theirnon-English major counterpart, and English majors are mainly motivated by Ideal L2Self while non-English majors are mainly motivated by Ought-to L2 Self; thirdly,students’ EFL motivation increases along with their grade except for the second year;fourthly, as for motivational differences among students from different categories ofuniversities, the decreasing sequence of them is: science and engineering university,comprehensive university, normal university and medical university; lastly, collegestudents EFL motivation have positive correlation with family background factors(birthplace, parents’ education background and family economic status). In order toknow the underlying reasons that lead to the phenomenon, the writer interviewed 15students which were selected randomly from the sample, and we found that, collegestudents are concerning about personal development. Since English is an importantrequired course in university, and required by employees and further study, studentsmake efforts to its learning in order to improve themselves in the future. Therefore,college students have generally high motivation in English learning.In order to apply the results better to language learning and teaching to makeEnglish learning more effective, in this chapter, pedagogical implications andsuggestions for further study of motivation are discussed.
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The reference (omitted)