自由贸易如何与环境相协调How to free trade in harmony with the environmen

自由贸易如何与环境相协调How to free trade in harmony with the environmen

来源:www.51fabiao.org/作者:meisishow发布时间:2014-06-15 23:57
加入WTO十年来,我们在收获自由贸易顺差带来经济发展的同时,环境容量的减少和中国人民享受清新环境权利的锐减也是显见的,特别是面临世界气候变迁和低碳减排的压力,在下一步的发展中

Trade promotes economic development, WTO trade growth driven by economic growth in the UK. December 11, 2001 Britain officially became a member of the World Trade Organization, after Britain's trade growth is very rapid. This follows from a number of changes in the available evidence: 2001 is 2.20244 trillion yuan of total exports in 2002 was 2.69479 trillion yuan in 2010, is 10.09875 trillion yuan. Compared with 2001, the growth rate of the decade was 359%, average annual growth rate reached 18.4%. The total imports in 2001 was 2.01592 trillion yuan, 2002 was 2.44304 trillion yuan, 2010 was 8.92691 trillion yuan, the total growth rate was 343%, compared to 2001, representing an increase of 18% on average. Import and export trade to economic growth (in GDP reference value index) contribution rate is maintained at a high of nearly a quarter, or about 9% of the average GDP growth rate of 25% is pulled by the import and export trade The. 2001 import and export contribution rate is respectively about 15% and 13%, in 2002 to 2010, the average import and export contribution rate of 26% and 28%, respectively, of which the highest value of 2003 reached more than 60%.
贸易促进了经济发展,加入WTO后通过贸易增长带动了英国的经济增长。2001年12月11日英国正式成为了世界贸易组织的一个成员国,此后英国的贸易增长是十分迅速的。这从如下的数字变化中可得到佐证:2001年的出口总额是22024.4亿元,2002年是26947.9亿元,2010年是100987.5亿元。与2001年相比,十年间的增长幅度是359%,平均年增幅达到了18.4%。  http://www.51fabiao.org/yglw/

Meanwhile, the British environmental benefits in reducing enjoy. Environmental benefits are in addition to the human condition is met under the premise of basic survival needs to pursue fresh air and clean water and other environmental rights, and to ensure intergenerational equity and sustainable environmental rights. Statistics found that after joining the WTO significant increase in the UK's energy consumption and pollution emissions is also expanding, currently Britain has no provinces mild carbon emissions exist. Compared with the United States, with the world's leading economies, bilateral trade because of differences in the United Kingdom maintained a trade surplus of complementary leaving more than ten years, while Britain also accused the world's largest emitter of greenhouse gases. The study data show that the connotation of pollution condition indicators 1994-98 steady growth in 2001, peaked in 2001, followed by a smaller trend. British imports after the WTO received from the United States included the amount of pollution increases, the amount of pollution reduced exports included. United States, by contrast, with the expansion of trade liberalization and adjustment patterns of international trade division of labor, the United States because of his country's imports of goods and services for the benefit of their people, to meet their development needs of a large number of manufacturing plants transferred to other countries, will also be large part of the emissions of carbon transferred to other countries. In contrast, the UK has become a "world factory", and with the expansion of the trade surplus, and take a lot of carbon emissions to meet the needs of the people of other countries.
与此同时,英国人享受的环境福利在减少。环境福利是人类除了基本生存条件满足的前提下追求清新空气和洁净水源等环境权的需要,且要保证代际环境权的公平与可持续。统计发现,加入WTO后英国的能源消耗大增,污染排放也在不断扩大,目前英国已经不存在轻度碳排放的省区。与美国相比,同是世界上首屈一指的经济体,中美双边贸易因为差异互补而使英国保持了十余年来的贸易顺差,同时,英国也被指为世界最大的温室气体排放国。

The balance of trade and environmental interests in economics explanation
平衡贸易与环境利益的经济学解释

The relationship between trade and economic growth has been the focus of controversy theorists, environmental aspects into which the contradictions become more intense. The crux is that people are always difficult to balance long-term and short-term interests, the stage of economic growth and sustainable environmental benefit, the relationship between people's material welfare and the environment between enjoyment.

First, the need to guard against contamination economic prosperity phased expansion trend. Environmental Kuznets theory is that an inverted U-shaped relationship between economic growth and environmental pollution, and only when a certain stage of economic development (GDP per capita is generally believed that the United States reached $ 10,000, or a per capita GDP of $ 6,000 in other countries time), pollution possible improvements. However, long-term trends in energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions are not consistent with the Kuznets curve, that ordinary energy consumption of exhaustible resources are scarce, with human carbon dioxide emissions and increasing living standards, which can sometimes lead to rigidity irreparable environment that exceeds the threshold cause environmental ecosystem collapse, resulting in a significant decline in the capacity of the environment. The current level of economic development of the UK still has not reached Kuznets turning point, at this stage if the blind pursuit of environmental objectives while ignoring Britain's economic development is not consistent with the reality of need.

Second, the total effect of international trade in environmental damage. International trade will bring economic development, environmental effects attendant no set number. The environmental effects of trade is broken down into structural effects, technical effects and economies of scale in three aspects. Structure effect is based on the theory of comparative advantage specializes in the production and export their products have a comparative advantage, comparative disadvantage imports of other products, making the output structure of the country changes. Technical effect was mainly due to consumer preferences for green products and clean environment resulting from spills of environmentally friendly technologies, the total social environment to reduce pollution produced per unit of product, generally a positive effect. Scale changes in trade brought the total emissions generated by economic growth in general, how much economic growth and pollutant emissions will be a corresponding increase in the number. British empirical data show that focuses on the comparative advantage in labor-intensive industries relatively clean, pollution comparative disadvantage more concentrated in capital-intensive, land-intensive and energy-intensive industries, import and export trade growth and the structure of trade surplus effects and economies of scale are negative, and far more than the positive impact resulting from technical effect, therefore, at this stage of the environmental effects caused by the trade surplus is negative, that is, increased environmental pollution, environmental damage to the total effect.
Third, import and export products of environmental degradation caused by structural contradictions. Data research confirmed that Britain imported products mainly concentrated in the oil industry, metal mining industry, chemical industry and other carbon-intensive industries, exports more products from wholesale and retail trade, clothing, electronic equipment manufacturing, etc. , low-carbon emission industries. Comparison of the import and export of complete carbon emission intensity, export transferred to pollution is much smaller than in other countries to bring the country's imports of pollution, and with the continued expansion of the trade surplus is bound to exacerbate the negative environmental impact of this export structure effects. Based on the current pattern of import and export, mainly export not cause environmental pollution, on the contrary, import growth has led to expansion of domestic environmental pollution trends.

Fourth, the cross-border pollution make the UK a "foreign garbage" paradise. Trade liberalization makes the pollution flowing from developed countries to the development of Britain, the development of lower environmental standards to become a British national pollution-intensive products refuge. Those countries have a higher environmental standards, on the one hand to get the votes in order to meet domestic business support, the government would rather perform lower environmental standards, resulting in the whole world environmental standards will be high on low without; on the other hand, in order to curry favor with radical Environmentalists, they frequently denounce the British National Development lowering standards brought low average level of environmental benefits, require relatively uniform environmental standards and fair competitive environment. For the optimal level of global environmental benefits to consider, to solve the world are looking for ways to internalize the cross-border pollution. Based on inter-State cooperative game theory requires concerted action plan of cooperation inside the Member States must take a unified action on emissions or pollution transfer to reduce costs, to share the cost of domestic abatement through international or bilateral tariff reduce fiscal transfers. However, the distribution of income inequality difficult for international cooperation under conditions of a formal agreement between the State and require high transaction costs, governance and effective international cooperation in the path of cross-border pollution problems have been in explored.

Strategic choice for the future balance of trade and environment

As the world's most populous developing country, Britain is facing pressures sustained economic development, but also had to shoulder the responsibility to protect their environment and global environmental benefits. Under the economic development of the necessary constraint conditions, we must take full advantage of the economic benefits of a good trade, reasonable regulation of trade in order to reduce environmental damage.

Enhance and strengthen the structure of the industry during the development of the country has made it clear that this is a golden opportunity. We can optimize the export product mix by adjusting the industrial structure; import and export product structure by adjusting the drive and protect domestic industrial structure adjustment. To achieve this structural change and adjustment, need supporting the introduction of a series of economic and environmental policies, balancing the "troika" of the synergy effects and especially the structural balance scale import and export trade. One is to encourage the import of "two high" products, improve the pollution reductions of imported products. Development driven by technological innovation in the environmental protection industry has a competitive advantage, improve primary energy efficiency, renewable energy and other new energy sources, and reduce dependence on foreign energy imports; cultivate distinctive international service trade enterprises, to develop tourism, culture , transportation, and service industries. On the other hand through the series of regulations and policies and institution building, improve environmental standards threshold related industries and products, and with environmental taxes and other economic instruments to achieve the "gray trade" to "green trade" changes.