英国MPA预科课程论文范文

英国MPA预科课程论文范文

来源:www.51fabiao.org作者:cinq发布时间:2014-02-01 10:38
中东是一个缺水的地区。 在世界上15个最贫水的国家,有10个在中东。在水资源匮乏的世界地图,中东是指水供不应求最大的地区。

Physical water scarcity. 

Middle East is a water-scarce region. Of the 15 most water-poor countries in the world, 10 are in the Middle East. On a world map of water scarcity, the Middle East is the largest region in which water demand outstrips supply.(United Explanations, 2010) South Asia and Nile River basin are also water-lack regions.

Environmental changing. 

South Asian countries already face extreme climate-induce disasters, such as annual floods, cyclones and droughts. South Asia’s river systems are especially vulnerable to climate change. Climate studies indicate a likely shift in monsoon patterns and the likelihood that most river basin in the region will become drier leading to persistent water shortages.(http://www.51fabiao.org/yglw/  Srabani Roy, 2010) Increasing flooding lead to mass migration of environmental refugees across the boarders. Melting glaciers have already caused glacial-lake outburst floods, displacing thousands of people down stream and reducing water supply for hydropower for countries like Nepal and India. Rising temperatures and reduced melt water threat to the Indus River Basin.Cooperation of multilateral of sharing water. 

Human activities.

Increasing demand of water driven by economic development and population growth. Demand for water is rising, driven by population growth and economic development. Especially in developing countries. As economic development leads to higher individual water consumption. Population growth create demand for more agricultural production and more water will be needed to grow more food.  All of the countries in South Asia - Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India ,Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka- currently face a water shortage. Average water availability per capita across the region has decreased by 70 percent since the 1950s and continues to decline. Intensified agricultural practices and irrigation; increasing energy demand from greater industrial activity and economic growth; urbanization and rising incomes; and deteriorating water quality in the regions surface and groundwater resources all threaten to increase pressure on already scarce water.(Srabani Roy, 2010)

Political control water of cross-boundary countries. Historically, vast difference in the political clout of nations across which, or along which, a river flows have resulted in unequal water division. Under the 1959 Nile Waters Agreement between Egypt and Sudan, Egypt has rights to 87% of the Nile’s water,with Sudan having rights to the rest.Ethiopia, whose highlands supply 86%of Nile water, does not even figure in the agreement: Continuing conflicts weakened the agreement to a point where Ethiopia has unable to press a claim.(Wendy Barnaby, 2009)

Economic structure of focusing much on agriculture that need water. The middle East experienced a “green revolution”, Saudi Arabia roughly tripled its area of farmland between 1980 and 1992. Jordan invested in agriculture with revenues from vegetables increasing tenfold during the1980 and 1990s. 65-90 percent of national water consumption is being used in agriculture which represents a very small portion of the whole economy. (United Explanations 2010) . Egypt’s agriculture count for 86%,and Ethiopia 94%, Sudan 97%.

Insufficient management and storage of water and wrong pattern of sumption of water are also factors affecting the shortage of water.