政治学essay范文:Characteristics of development of Chinese economy

政治学essay范文:Characteristics of development of Chinese economy

来源:www.51fabiao.org作者:cinq发布时间:2013-12-25 13:20
The development of capitalism has a history of 360 years since British bourgeois revolution. Capitalism generated as a social system and has gone through primitive accumulation
Characteristics of development of Chinese economy

The development of capitalism has a history of 360 years since British bourgeois revolution. Capitalism generated as a social system and has gone through primitive accumulation, free competition, private monopoly and state monopoly stages, gradually reaching a maturity level. An important means of the completion of capital accumulation was derived from the exploitation of their labor (Brass, 2011). In the stage of primitive accumulation of capital, the phenomenon of capitalists’ infringement of fundamental rights of labor has appeared in the major capitalist countries in the world. For instance, capitalists relied on absolutely extending working hours, increasing labor intensity, and even employment of child labor to reduce labor costs to get more profits. Objectively speaking, the exploitation created the basic conditions for capitalists to further expand the scale of production, which objectively promoted the development of capitalist production. This provides the material basis for the existence and development of capitalist civilization (Wilson, 2012). 
Over the years, there is the view that primitive accumulation of capital is an inevitable phenomenon in the process of establishing the capitalist mode of production in Western countries, it is evil, dirty, bloody, which has nothing to do with the socialism of China. To carefully study the basic ideas and basic principles of political economy, it will find that this phenomenon also exists in China (Mosley and Uno, 2007; Heartfield, 2005). Primitive accumulation of capital is an inevitable phenomenon in the course of development of social productive forces in social existence and it is unconcerned with the nature of social formation in social consciousness. Because of this, western capitalist countries experienced primitive accumulation of capital in the process of development of social productive forces, China as a socialist society is bound to go through primitive accumulation of capital in the process of achieving a qualitative leap in social productive forces (Mosley and Uno, 2007).
China's economy is in a stage of primitive accumulation of capital currently, China's economy is based on labor-intensive enterprises. China's economy is characterized by low value-added industries and high energy consumption, high pollution. The low value-added characteristics make corporate profits low, enterprises are not willing to spend more to raise wages and welfare of employees; high energy consumption, high pollution make employees' work environment relatively poor, work intensity high. These are also major causes of violation of Chinese labor rights (Lee and Shen, 2009). The existence of the phenomenon is unfavorable for the long-term development of China's economy. Objectively speaking, this exploitation phenomenon will help the companies to complete primitive accumulation of capital, helping to increase the international competitiveness of Chinese enterprises’. Requiring China to eliminate the phenomenon of exploitation of labor rights in a short period of time would obviously have a tremendous impact on Chinese economy (Lee and Shen, 2009), for example, Chinese companies’ profit margins are very low originally, greatly improving staff’s benefits will greatly increase manpower costs, which will lead to decline in the international competitiveness and declined profits of Chinese enterprises’, further causing the closure of businesses and a lot of unemployed workers, and even social instability (Lee and Shen, 2009). Only when Chinese economy continues to develop to achieve a successful transition, Chinese enterprises can get more profits, to avoid acquiring profits at the expense of high energy consumption and high pollution, can Chinese enterprises be more capable to protect the rights of workers. Therefore, the current violation of Chinese labor rights is likely the only way for the successful transformation of China's economy (Lee and Shen, 2009).

Double standards in dealing with issues on Chinese labor rights 

In 2012, China has become the world's second largest economic body, one of the reasons for the rapid development of China's economy is its rich and cheap labor power. China’s cheap labor makes Chinese enterprises obtain a cost advantage, thereby crowding out manufacturing enterprise of many developed countries and taking their market shares. This results in a decline in profits of some companies’, unemployment of employees and reduced employment opportunities. Some scholars and government officials in developed countries believe that Chinese enterprises are through exploiting labor to gain cost advantage, which is an important reason for development of China's manufacturing industry (Ngai and Chan, 2012). Therefore, media in developed countries have reported a lot about the phenomenon of violation of human rights in Chinese enterprises, they took China's famous OEM, Foxconn as an example, its sweatshop image was widely disseminated (Ngai and Chan, 2012). Although the phenomenon of violation of labor rights does exist in some Chinese enterprises taking Foxconn as the representative, media and organizations in developed countries seem to overreact about these phenomena, because the same phenomenon is also found in first class multinational. The world's largest sporting goods manufacturer, Nike published a report in April 13, 2005, acknowledging that its factories in Southeast Asia have the problems of forcing workers to work overtime, depriving workers’ rights of drinking during working hours, which certified the accusations of Nike’s overseas factories as "sweatshops " (Nisen, 2013). In February 2008, factories of a number of luxury brands including GUCCI in Toscana, Italy hired a large number of Chinese workers and they were only paid with low wages. Their work environment is very harsh, luxury goods with the prices of a few thousands of dollars were produced in such an environment (Lee, 2007). In 2012, British "Daily Telegraph" reported a newspaper reporter’s unannounced visit in a factory in Cambodia. In the factory, the workers worked six days a week, eight hours a day, they got a monthly remuneration of £ 61 , plus £ 5 insurance . In addition to complaining about that the treatment was unable to meet daily expenses, the workers expressed dissatisfaction about production and living environment. Some workers described that poor working environment made them feel the pressure (Realsociology, 2012). It can be seen from the above examples that some western media and institutions have double standards for the protection of labor rights. Because they were always publicizing that labor exploitation exists in Chinese companies, or they even fabricated facts to discredit Chinese enterprises. For instance, a well-known presenter named Mike Daisey from Public Radio International (PRI) admitted that in their coverage about Chinese enterprise, Foxconn’s exploitation of labor, some news was not reliable (Berne, 2012). The fact is, the phenomenon of exploitation of labor also exists in some well-known multinationals in western countries, they also obtain cost advantage and economic profit through exploitation of labor. Meanwhile, China is also improving its own legislation, developing a series of safeguards to protect the rights of Chinese workers, the phenomenon of violation of labor rights declines, but western media seldom reports the improvement (Thelle, 2013).