巴斯大学 (University of Bath)会计类作业范文:会计制度下的公允税法分析Fair value for

巴斯大学 (University of Bath)会计类作业范文:会计制度下的公允税法分析Fair value for

来源:www.51fabiao.org作者:meisishow发布时间:2013-10-17 13:21
企业的会计核算和税收处理分别遵循不同的原则,服务于不同的目的。在我国,会计的确认、计量、报告应当遵循企业会计准则的规定,目的在于真实、完整地反映企业的财务状况、经营成果和

one new system of accounting standards in the application of fair value

New accounting standards system features is reintroduced the "fair value" measurement attribute . In 1998 to develop a " debt restructuring ", "non -monetary asset exchange " and other specific accounting standards , the UK accounting profession for the first time began to use "fair value" , due to appear in the actual operation of the fair value of many companies to manipulate profits abuse case in 2001 the revised guidelines are restrictions on the use of this measurement attributes . Given the UK market economy gradually improved , the application of the fair value of the environment gradually with the new accounting standards issued for convergence with international accounting standards system needs re-introduction of fair value accounting measurement attributes. But taking into account the current UK market economic system is not very mature, to determine the fair value of uncertainties remain high , more cases of subjective estimation component for maximizing the use of fair value to avoid the manipulation of corporate profits , the new system of accounting standards for fair using the value of a strictly limited scope , mainly in financial instruments , investment property , non- business combination under common control , debt restructuring and non-monetary assets exchange and other aspects can be applied fair value . Meanwhile , in the " Accounting Standards for Enterprises - Basic Standards" Article 42 clearly states: "With the replacement cost , net realizable value, present value , fair value , should ensure that the identified accounting elements can be obtained and reliable measurement . " in the relevant specific guidelines on fair value measurement also have clearly defined limits . For example, for the use of fair value , "Enterprise Accounting Standards No. 7 - Non- monetary assets exchange ," states: the exchange of non-monetary assets , the fair value and the book value of the assets surrendered through profit or loss the difference between the two precondition that the exchange must have commercial substance , and the assets received or the fair value of the assets surrendered can be measured reliably . As another example, in the " Accounting Standards for Enterprises No. 3 - investment real estate " in the provisions are measured using the fair value model shall meet the following conditions : First, investment real estate locations where there are active real estate market ; Second, enterprises can from obtained on the real estate market the same or similar to the real estate market prices and other relevant information , and thus the fair value of investment property to make a reasonable estimate . As can be seen from these provisions , the application of new accounting standards system attribute fair value measurement is very cautious .
新会计准则整体体系的独特的地方之一是从新引入了“公允价值”计量属性。在1998年制定的“债务重组”、“非金钱性资产交换”等具体验领会计准则中,英议会计界第一次着手应用“公允价值”,后因实际运行中显露出来众多企业滥用公允价值驾驶利润的事情状况,在2001年修改订正后的准则中被限止运用这种计量属性。

Second, the new guidelines on the fair value of the tax effect of adjustments
新准则下公允价值对纳税调整的影响

The introduction of new accounting standards system properties at fair value , in some respects with the relevant UK tax system requires consistency in reducing the corporate tax to adjust the content , but in some areas , requires further separation and tax systems and regulations , but also increased the corporate tax adjust the content .
新会计准则整体体系引入公允价值计量属性,在一点方面与英国有关税制规定趋向完全一样,减损了公司的交纳税款调试内部实质意义,但在某些领域,准则规定与税制规定进一步离合,也增加了公司交纳税款调试的内部实质意义。


( one ) The fair values ​​under the new tax system with the convergence criteria
The relevant provisions of the UK tax system , as long as the transfer of assets to asset sales , in accordance with the "fair value" as the tax basis , calculate and pay the turnover tax and income tax. Such as VAT regarded as sales of eight kinds of situations , regardless of whether the accounting treatment as a sale should be measured at fair value ( market price , the tax rates or the tax authorities of the price ) calculate and pay VAT. For non- monetary asset exchange business , the tax system provides: Press the fair value of the assets surrendered as taxable income , rather than the book value of the assets surrendered recognized as the difference between the asset transfer income ; swapped assets at fair value plus any to pay the costs associated with a tax cost of assets exchanged . These requirements in respect of the tax system and the old standard uses a book value of assets transferred is very different from the value of enterprise daily accounting by accounting standards, but when in the calculation of taxable income tax adjustments need to be larger . New Accounting Standards measured at fair value approach , in some respects with the provisions of the tax system is basically the same , companies under the new accounting standards system relative reduction in the content of tax adjustments .

Debt restructuring , for example, the introduction of new debt restructuring guidelines fair value of the restructured debt and debt restructuring as well as non-cash assets involved in the measurement of properties and equity , transfer of assets and debt restructuring operations separately , and in the profit or loss at the same time the asset transfer income and gain on debt restructuring . "Enterprise Income Tax Treatment of Debt Restructuring Rules", seizes the fair value of non-cash assets as an asset transfer income - taxable income to debt carrying value of non-cash assets to tax costs , repossessed the fair value of non-cash assets and as the difference between the book value of assets transferred to income subject to income tax ; book value of debt to be restructured debt of non-cash assets as the difference between the fair value gain on restructuring calculate and pay income tax. Thus, in the new guidelines , corporate debt restructuring gains recognized in income recognition and asset transfers and tax law is basically the same . Compared with the original standards , new standards greatly narrowed the application of fair value accounting and tax differences.

However, in some of the details on the accounting norms and tax system still exist some differences , such as the "Enterprise Income Tax Treatment of Debt Restructuring Rules", the debtor of the debt restructuring debt due to non-cash assets transferred assets recognized in the income or debt restructuring income, if the amount is large , lump-sum taxation is really difficult , by the competent tax authority, can not more than five tax year amortization period . This makes the debt restructuring are recognized when the accounting and tax profits recognized on taxable temporary differences arising between income .

( Two ) increase in fair values ​​under the new standards, the content of the tax adjustment
Tax policy in the UK , in order to protect national fiscal revenue , to ensure the tax on the taxable entity between the fair , prevent enterprises from using a variety of means to regulate taxation, tax law emphasizes certainty in the implementation of tax laws , stressed the rigidity and authority , and Stresses that the full use of the fair value measurement of market price information , future events and risks of the enterprise or project-specific effects in the use of subjective judgment is required to play , emphasizing the economic substance of the business . Therefore, the tax system in the United Kingdom stressed the principle of historical cost valuation . Such as " corporate income tax deduction approach" Article clearly states: " the taxpayer's inventory, fixed assets , intangible assets and investments to determine the cost of each asset should follow the historical cost principle ." Introduction of fair value accounting standards , taxation system and the differences in the measurement of properties will increase taxes on the difference between the increase in the content of tax adjustments .

Financial instruments at fair value accounting in the application , for example, "Enterprise Accounting Standards No. 22 - Financial Instruments Recognition and Measurement " provides for at fair value with changes through profit or loss Financial assets , which in particular accounting for the end point of the book value of the fair value . The relevant provisions of the tax system , asset price movements during the holding period will not be considered income when the tax , that the accounting of financial assets at the end of a tax base for their acquisition costs , will cause changes in the fair value of the case, the the carrying value of financial assets and the difference between the tax basis , the need for tax adjustments .

Example: December 10, 2007 , A company from the open market to obtain an equity investment , to pay the price 1200 yuan, as exchange-traded financial assets. December 31 , the market price of the equity investment is 1450 million.


The final trading price of financial assets 1 450 million, according to accounting standards in the end of 2007 the balance sheet date, the carrying value of 1450 yuan. Because the relevant provisions of the tax system , trading financial assets at fair value changes during the holding period is not included in taxable income , which in 2007 the balance sheet date the tax base should be maintained unchanged its acquisition cost , or 1 2000000 million.


The carrying amount of trading financial assets worth 4.5 million yuan and its tax base between $ 1200 produced 2.5 million temporary differences in the calculation of income taxes is required to make tax adjustments.


Another example : the fair value of long-term equity investment in the application of " Accounting Standards for Enterprises No. 2 - Long-term equity investment " Article XII , investment companies should have been invested in the units recognized in net gains and losses , it should be to investment when the investment is made ​​all the fair value of identifiable assets , based on the net profit of the investee after the adjustment . This is actually using the equity method . Under the equity method , the company's current book value of long-term equity investments and investment income are largely dependent on the fair value of recognized financial position and its final profit or loss by the application of the fair value of greater impact . The equity method of subsequent measurement of these assets are based on historical cost principle and realization of the principle of holding gains on investment income and gains on disposal to deal with. After receiving holding gains should be recognized as a taxable income , gross income shall be included in the enterprise in accordance with the investment rate of the first companies to use to restore ; disposal gains on disposal of investments directly into income . Therefore, in the application of the fair value of the new guidelines will make the accounting and tax on investment income and the amount of time a greater deviation , which deviate from the accounting and tax measures will produce differences in income tax expense .


In addition, the new accounting standards for fixed assets and intangible assets are subsequently measured at fair value with the practice of the fixed assets according to their nature and use to determine useful life and residual values ​​, according to their economic interests and their implementation form a reasonable choice depreciation method for intangible assets , based on their expected economic benefits for the enterprise amortization period . The tax on a range of fixed assets depreciation ,

depreciation method , depreciation , amortization of intangible assets and other aspects of more stringent requirements , giving companies less freedom of choice , which are related to new accounting standards require a greater differences will generate new tax adjustments content.

Introduction of new accounting standards, fair value re- measurement attributes , international convergence of accounting standards is the need , but due to the UK market economic system has not yet fully mature, the application of fair value is also very cautious, regulations and guidelines related to the convergence of existing tax laws and regulations , and there are separate so that the contents of corporate tax adjustment increases and decreases . Enterprises in the use of new accounting standard requires the use of tax accounting treatment reasonably reflect these differences, the quality of accounting information .