英国利兹大学\University of Leeds经济assignment:世界低碳经济发展趋势和影响World ec

英国利兹大学\University of Leeds经济assignment:世界低碳经济发展趋势和影响World ec

来源:http://www.51fabiao.org作者:meisishow发布时间:2013-10-10 10:51
发展低碳经济作为协调社会经济发展、保障能源安全与应对气候变化的基本途径,已得到世界各国普遍认同。

The global financial crisis has led the world economy to accelerate the further development of low-carbon , low-carbon economy to achieve global emission reduction targets and promote economic recovery and sustainable development an important driving force . Major developed countries with low carbon technologies and system innovation advantage, to intensify the implementation of low-carbon economic development strategies , and build a new world, a new pattern of industrial and technological competition . British tradition of high-carbon economy and foreign trade development mode is facing severe challenges , the potential at the transition to a low carbon economy in the pipeline.
全世界金融危机促推世界经济加速向低碳化深化进展,低碳经济变成成功实现全世界减排目的、增进经济复苏和可连续不断进展的关紧推动力气。主要发达国度依靠低碳领域的技术和制度创新优势,紧着实行低碳经济进展战略,构筑世界新一轮产业和技术竞争新格局。

Major developed countries to speed up low-carbon economy , and build a new pattern of global competition1 美国奥巴马政府推行绿色新政,培育新能源产业。

( A ) large-scale investment in low-carbon areas , and promote economic recovery , and cultivate new growth points. 2008 after the outbreak of the global financial crisis , the U.S. , the EU and Japan launched an unprecedented large-scale economic stimulus plan, the field will be used as a low-carbon investment priorities.

(一)大规模投入低碳领域,促经济复苏,培育新增长点。 2008年全球金融危机爆发后,美国、欧盟和日本推出前所未有的大规模经济刺激计划,都将低碳领域作为投资的重点。

Obama Administration launched a Green New Deal , and foster new energy industries.

February 2009 , U.S. President Barack Obama signed the " Recovery and Reinvestment Act," the implementation of a total $ 787.2 billion economic stimulus plan , including the development of new energy sources, energy efficiency and other aspects of climate warming . Among them, the development of new energy as the core content , and development of new energy -related investments total more than 40 billion U.S. dollars , according to plan , the next three years , the U.S. renewable energy production will double ; develop and implement stringent vehicle emission standards, vigorously promote the development of green buildings , etc. , as well as construction of new smart grid ; through a series of energy saving measures , the development of low-carbon economy in the global response to climate warming, control initiative . Obama administration to develop new energy sources as the core of the Green New Deal is not just the pursuit of short-term goals of economic recovery , but also focus on the economic future , develop new energy industry , making it into a new economic growth point, to revive the U.S. economy.


European Union to promote economic recovery and transformation strategy combines a low-carbon economy .


In Germany , the UK and other EU member states have issued their own economic stimulus plan , the European Commission for the coordination of national actions to maximize the potential of national economic stimulus to the formation of scale , in December 2008 , the introduction of a total 2000 billion euros ( about $ 252 billion ) economic stimulus plan . Among them, the development of low-carbon economy to achieve the EU 's " three 20% targets " ( 2007 , 2020, proposed by the EU greenhouse gas emissions in 1990 by at least 20% on the basis of the total renewable energy consumption of clean energy the proportion increased to 20% , the coal , oil, natural gas and other fossil energy consumption by 20% . ) investments of 48 billion euros ( about 60.5 billion U.S. dollars ) , it is clear the EU to promote economic recovery and increase employment opportunities for short-term transition to a low carbon economy measures and medium-term strategies. March 2009 , the EU announced that it will invest in 2013 before the 105 billion euros ( $ 132.3 billion ) for the construction of a green economy to create more jobs , combat global warming and environmental technology firm in the field of the EU in the world leader.


Japanese investment carbon revolution .


April 2009 , Japan announced totaled 15.4 trillion yen ( $ 154 billion ) economic stimulus plan , including emergency measures to stabilize employment and financial system ; invest in the future , focused on future growth strategies ; and to stimulate vitality of Japan aspects . Investing in the future of the core content of carbon revolution , the scale of investment of 1.6 trillion yen ( $ 16 billion total ) . Goal for 2020 is to reach the world's first solar energy utilization ; utilization of renewable energy sources reached the world's highest level ; oldest in the world to achieve universal environmentally friendly cars ; promote low-carbon transport revolution , the development of the world's most advanced logistics ; become resources in the country , the leadership World carbon recycling trend.

to develop and implement long-term strategic planning. World-leading low carbon technologies and industries.

Low-carbon economy as a new development model, as the post-crisis era of world economic growth an important thrust. Major developed countries with low carbon technologies and system innovation advantages, the development of low-carbon economy development and implementation of strategic planning and long-term , trying a new round of world economic growth gain a strong competitive advantage.


A U.S. legislation to promote greenhouse gas emissions , the development of clean energy, low-carbon economy.


U.S. President Barack Obama early in the campaign made ​​it clear that , in the United States to implement greenhouse gas emissions , promoting clean energy and energy efficiency developments in the field and return to the international arena of climate negotiations , in June 2009 passed the "American Clean Energy Act " is the U.S. in this direction, an important step . "American Clean Energy Act " clearly states reduce fossil energy use by 2020 , greenhouse gas emissions in 2005 based on the reduction of 17% , 83% reduction by 2050 . Since 2012 has been implemented since the total amount of greenhouse gas emissions trading system control , power generation , oil refining , steel and other industrial sectors greenhouse gas emission quotas will be gradually reduced, excess emissions need to purchase emission rights . By 2020, at least 15% of electricity production as solar, wind , geothermal and other clean energy sources , and another 5% through energy efficiency measures to reduce energy consumption , two must add up to 20% . Invest $ 190 billion for the development of new clean energy technologies and energy efficiency , including renewable energy, carbon capture and storage , electric vehicles and other advanced technology , basic science research and development. "American Clean Energy Act " constitutes a low-carbon economy of the United States to the legal framework that the U.S. policy on climate change on a fundamental shift in tone .


European Union to promote a low carbon economy , we must lead the world in the development of low-carbon technologies .


In the development of low-carbon economy , the EU countries to go in the world. The UK is a low-carbon economy is the most active advocates and practitioners , in order to promote a low carbon economy , the UK release " 2008 Climate Change Act," provides reduction of greenhouse gases by 2050 to 80% , becoming the world's first greenhouse gas reduction emission targets legislation in the country. July 2009 , the British government issued the " low-carbon transformation and development plan" ( hereinafter referred to as the "Plan" ) , the world's first quantified emission reduction targets for greenhouse gas control and management of the budget , determine the "carbon budget " targets , and decomposes implemented in various fields . "Planning" asked the British to 2020 greenhouse gas emissions at 2008 levels by 18% on the basis of which is equivalent to the level of emissions in 1990 based on the reduction of 34% . 2020 renewable energy in the energy supply to 15% of the share , of which 40% of its electricity from green energy sector , which includes both the power plant for coal -dependent "green transformation " is more important is the development of wind power and other green energy . In the housing sector , the UK government funding £ 3.2 billion for energy-saving housing , housing for those active in the clean energy equipment installed in households to compensate. In transport, the new production of carbon dioxide emission standards for automobiles in 2007 on the basis of an average of 40%. Meanwhile, the British government is also actively supporting green manufacturing, research and development of new green technologies , from a policy and funding to low-carbon industries tilt, ensure that the UK carbon capture , clean coal and other new technologies is the leader . "Planning" marks the UK government is dominated economy to a low-carbon transition .

June 2009 through the "American Clean Energy Act " stipulates that the United States reserves the right to limit greenhouse gas emissions never implemented imports of energy-intensive countries impose carbon tariffs. Earlier, www.51fabiao.org the French government also recommended the development of the British EU countries impose carbon tariffs on imported products . The United States and Europe will address climate change linked to international trade , trying carbon tariff trade measures to promote the development of English country in the post-Kyoto international climate negotiations promised to take strong action to reduce emissions , the United Kingdom , India and other developing countries face enormous English pressure to reduce emissions . If you do not set specific emission reduction targets, the United States is likely to develop English countries impose carbon tariffs on exports , the EU will follow suit.

Developed countries to implement carbon tariffs cost internalization the climate will change international trade commodity structure, the development of English country 's comparative advantage of export commodities decreased or even reversed. According to the World Resources Institute (WRI) on national statistics departments of carbon emissions , the UK 's export commodities contained in carbon emissions is the highest. This means that , once implemented, carbon tariffs , the UK export commodities will be even greater impact . Currently electronics, building materials, chemicals , steel and other high-carbon industries accounted for more than half of the UK the proportion of export markets . As a "high energy consumption products" category , one of the United Kingdom to the United States in 2008 exports of electromechanical products 152.86 billion U.S. dollars , accounting for the UK 's total exports to the United States 61. % . Obviously, impose carbon tariffs in the short term the industry will have a serious negative impact.

The so-called carbon tariffs , but in reality is a new form of green trade barriers . Overall, developed countries will implement more stringent environmental standards. Development of English national high energy consumption, high emission and low energy efficiency of the production model will continue for quite a long time , and its exports is bound to become more frequent encounters green barriers, and thus lead to more trade frictions. Seen in developed countries in the development of low-carbon economy have a competitive advantage , and they developed a low-carbon economy " rules of the game ," the initiative will affect the pattern of international trade , so as to develop the British national " carbon economy" brings new growth obstacles.


Development of low-carbon economy in the UK Inspiration


English as a stage in the industrialization and urbanization of the developing country, economic and trade growth and resources, environmental constraints have become increasingly prominent , with the world trend of in-depth development of low-carbon economy , the traditional development model of high-carbon economy and trade severe challenges . UK attaches great importance from a strategic low carbon economic development , and actively learn from developed countries experience a low-carbon economy , and gradually establish a low carbon economy the UK policy framework .

( A ) accelerate research and development of low-carbon economic development strategy .

Development of low-carbon economy , technological innovation is fundamental, institutional innovation is the guarantee. Combined with British building a resource-saving and environment- friendly society work objectives and requirements, learn and absorb advanced concepts of low-carbon economy , in-depth research and development of national low-carbon economic development strategy, building a sound legal system for low-carbon economy , promote social and economic transition towards a low-carbon direction .

( Two ) to strengthen institutional mechanisms for building low-carbon economy .

Carry out pilot demonstration of low-carbon economy , exploring and establishing British national conditions, to support low-carbon economy and market environment policy system , featuring a low-carbon economy to seek British development. Experience of developed countries shows that carbon trading market mechanisms established to promote an important means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions . From the actual situation of the United Kingdom , can be tried carbon intensity assessment system , in specific regions and industries to carry out carbon emissions trading . Domestic establishment of a regional emissions trading system requires a combination of regional economic and industrial structure, taking into account the regional high school carbon emissions . At present, the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta manufacturing concentrated mountain , but also carbon emissions concentration area , can first establish pilot carbon trading system . Start to start to explore regional carbon trading is a progressive choice, and carbon trading industry exploration stage , the initial alternative energy , chemical high energy consumption, high pollution and other industries pilot.

( Three ) actively adjust the industrial structure and energy structure . To make comprehensive use of fiscal, monetary , industrial policy , and strictly control high energy consumption, heavy pollution industries, promote energy conservation , focusing on prevention and control of environmental pollution , and promote the coordinated development of energy and environment . And gradually form a low-carbon agriculture , low-carbon industries, service industries , such as improving low-carbon low-carbon economy.

( Four ) build a green trading system.

In a globalized world economy , the development of low-carbon economy and international trade is bound to be linked with international trade rules in international climate change framework will be adjusted . Britain should adjust trade policy , greening export commodity structure , appropriate restrictions on the export of high energy consumption , and expand imports of manufactured goods , the establishment of sustainable development of foreign trade development mode. Adjust and modify certain British outdated trade policies and regulations, environmental policies and regulations to adapt the international market trends of green trade , and fully reflects the UK to fulfill obligations under international environmental conventions , considering the environmental impact of trade activities , climate costs internalization and other issues.

( Five ) actively participate in international cooperation in low-carbon technology .

Climate change, greenhouse gas emissions are global in nature , thus solving the problem of climate change should rely on economic , knowledge, technology and governance of globalization . British economy has been integrated into the world economy , not completely rely on their own forces in the development of low-carbon economy. As a developing country Britain , the British not only to emphasize innovation , but also to actively carry out international technical cooperation, through joint research and development , a reasonable transfer of other ways to enhance domestic technological level and innovation capability, to narrow the gap with the advanced low-carbon technologies .

( Six ) encourage enterprises to engage in low-carbon production and management.

Climate change promoted by the emerging low-carbon technologies and industries and development, will become the future trend of development of the world economy , the future must be based on competitive low-carbon products and technology competition . Governments should adopt a low-carbon industrial planning, financial and tax support, financial financing support and guide enterprises into low-carbon industries, the development of low-carbon products. At the same time , encourage enterprises to actively participate in the global low-carbon areas of technology innovation mechanism , and strive in clean and efficient energy technology breakthrough in the international carbon markets to gain competitive advantage.